finetuning.com's Glossary of XML, P2P and Semantic Web-related Terms
CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
Document Type Declaration (DOCTYPE declaration)
Document Type Definition (DTD)
HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
P2P or Peer-to-peer
Structured Query Language (SQL)
Standard Generalized Markup Language
Unified Modeling Language (UML)
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language)
XSLT (XSL Transformations)
Conversational model - a bi-directional communication model taking place across a distributed network. (The three characteristics of a conversation are: that it happens
spontaneously, that it is transient (lasts a short time) and that it occurs
among a group of (or between two) equal "peers".)
(Cascading Style Sheets) - A W3C Standard that uses a rule-based declarative
syntax that assigns formatting properties to the element either HTML or XML
Model - A data model is what is formally-defined in a DTD (Document Type
Definition) or XML Schema. A document's "data model" consists of the allowable
element and attribute names and optional structural and occurrence constraints
for a "type" or "class" of documents.
Typing - Data is said to be "typed" when it takes on additional abstract
meaning than what its characters usually represent. "Integers", "dates", "booleans",
and "strings" are all examples of "typed" data (data types). A data value that
is typed takes on additional meaning, due to the semantic properties known to
be associated with specific named "data types".
type declaration (DOCTYPE declaration) - A document type declaration is
the syntactical "glue" used by an XML document to locate an external DTD (Document
Type Definition) so that it can be validated against it.
Decentralized Network - A computer network distributed across many peers rather than centralized around a server.
Type Definition (DTD) - A formal definition of the data model (the elements
and attributes allowed and their allowable content and nesting structure) for
a class of documents. XML DTDs are written using SGML DTD syntax
- see "Link"
Transfer Protocol (HTTP) - This is the protocol by which web clients (browsers)
and web servers communicate. It is stateless, meaning that it does not maintain
a conversation between a given client and server, but it can be manipulated
using scripting to appear as if state is being maintained. Do not confuse HTML
(Markup language for our browser-based front ends), with HTTP (protocol used
by clients and servers to send and receive messages over the Web).
User Interface(GUI) - A GUI is what an end-user sees and interacts with
when operating (interacting with) a software application. Sometimes referred
to as the "front-end" of an application. HTML is the GUI standard for web-based
- A link (or hyperlink) is a relationship between two resources. HTML links usually connect
HTML documents together in this fashion (called a "hyperlink"), but links can
link to any type of resource (documents, pictures, sound and video files) capable
of residing at a Web address (URL).
- Markup is comprised of several "special characters" that are used to structure
a document's character data into logical components that can then be labeled
(named) so that they can be manipulated more easily by a software application.
(Everything in an XML document is either "character data" or "markup".)
Language - A markup language is used to structure a document's character
data into logical components, and "name" them in a manner that is useful. These
labels (element names) provide either formatting information about how the
character data should be visually presented (for a word processor or a web browser,
for instance) or they can provide "semantic" (meaningful) information about
what kind of data the component represents. Markup languages provide a simple
format for exchanging text-based character data that can be understood by both
humans and machines.
language - A language used to define markup languages. SGML and XML are
both meta-markup languages. HTML is a markup language that was defined using
the SGML meta-markup language.
Peer - A conversation participant. An "equal" to whatever person or application it is communicating with across a network (bi-directional communication).
P2P or Peer-to-peer -
A blanket term used to describe: (1) a peer-centric distributed software architecture, (2) a flavor of software that encourages collaboration and file sharing between peers, and (3) a cultural progression in the way humans and applications interact with each other that emphasizes two way interactive "conversations" in place of the Web's initial television-like communication model (where information only flows in one direction).
- Anything addressable via a URL. Examples of resources are: documents, files,
pictures, sounds, videos and databases.
Query Language (SQL) - An ISO and ANSI standard language for database access.
SQL is sometimes implemented as an interactive, command line application and
sometimes is used within database applications. Typical commands include select,
insert, and update.
Generalized Markup Language (SGML) -Since 1986, SGML has been the international
ISO standard used to define standards-based markup languages. HTML is a markup
language that is defined using SGML. The HTML DTD the specifies HTML is written
in SGML syntax. XML is not a markup language written in SGML. There is no
pre-defined DTD for "XML Markup". XML is a subset of the SGML standard itself.
sheets- A term extended from print publishing to online media. A style
sheet can contain either formatting information (as is the case with CSS - Cascading
Style Sheets, or XSL FOs - XSL Formatting Objects), or it can contain information
about how to manipulate the structure of a document, so it can be "transformed"
into another type of structure (as is the case with XSLT Transformation "style
- In XSLT, a transformation is the process of a software application applying
a style sheet containing template "rules" to a source document containing structured
XML markup to create a new document containing a completely altered data structure.
Modeling Language (UML) - Derived from three separate modeling languages,
UML offers a standard for transforming real-world objects and behaviors into
a notation from which object-oriented computer programs can be written.
Resource Locator (URL) - The address of a file or resource on the Internet.
- An XML document is "valid" if it is both well-formed and it conforms to an
explicitly-defined data model that has been expressed using SGML's DTD (Document
Type Definition) syntax.
server - A Web server is a program that, using the client/server model and
the World Wide Web's Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), serves the files that
form Web pages to Web users (whose computers contain HTTP clients that forward
- A document is "well-formed" if all of its start tags have end tags and are
nested properly, with any empty tags properly terminated, and any attribute
values properly quoted. An XML document must be well-formed by definition.
Schema - A formal definition of a "class" or "type" of documents that is
expressed using XML syntax instead of SGML DTD syntax.
(Extensible Stylesheet Language) - XSL has two parts to it: a transformation
vocabulary (XSL Transformations - XSLT) and a formatting vocabulary (XSL Formatting
Objects (XSL FOs).
FOs - XSL Formatting Objects - The formatting vocabulary part of XSL that
applies style properties to the result of an XSLT transformation.
(XSL Transformations) - The transformation vocabulary part of XSL. An XSLT
"stylesheet" contains template rules that are applied to selected portions of
a source document's "source tree" to produce a "result tree" that can then be
rendered for viewing, processed by another application, or further transformed
into another data structure.